R is for …

Continuing my exploration of surname origins in Andrew’s Kindred.

Based on: Reaney, P H, (ed. Wilson, R M), 1997, Oxford Dictionary of English Surnames, 3rd ed., OUP, Oxford, unless otherwise stated.

Rathbone

Earliest in Andrew’s Kindred:  William Rathbone, born about 1793, Coventry, Warwickshire. Continue reading “R is for …”

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Q is for …

… more questions than answers.

Well, there are 3,658 persons in Andrew’s Kindred, my family tree, or “hedgerow”, but none has a family name beginning with “Q”.  Nor, even, a first name beginning with “Q”.  And there is no royalty, so none of our queens is featured. Continue reading “Q is for …”

Football fatality

We were reminded of the potential risks of sport this weekend when Hull City player Ryan Mason suffered a serious head injury during the match against Chelsea.  The clash of heads with an opponent was purely accidental, but could easily have been life-threatening.  Medical attention was provided seconds after the incident, giving the injured player the best possible chance of recovery.

Spare a thought, then, for young Thomas Hogg, who, according to a marginal note by the Coroner, “came to his death owing to a fall in playing at football”.

burials-measham-thomas-hogg-1832
From the parish register for Measham, Derbyshire, 8 Apr 1832.

I am not sure how Thomas fits into my tree, but he is bound to have been related in some way to my second great grandmother Dorothy Hogg.  I have not yet been able to find out exactly how Thomas came to be injured – no slo-mo replays back then, but the presence of anyone able to provide effective medical assistance would have been a matter of chance.  Even if a doctor had been present, his knowledge of head trauma would have been vanishingly small in comparison to the people present at Stamford Bridge, the Chelsea ground, where the medical team were able to administer oxygen, and to deploy equipment to immobilise the casualty.  He was then rushed to hospital, where he underwent an emergency operation to address bleeding of the brain.  Thomas would have had none of that.

The last I heard was that Ryan Mason was sitting up and talking; here’s hoping that he makes a full recovery.

Oh Eliza!

Over the years I have managed to connect very nearly all people named Dennis or Dennies, born, baptised or resident in Oakthorpe, Donisthorpe, Measham, Moira and Bagworth, with some from Church Gresley and other nearby places, in south east Derbyshire and north west Leicestershire, so when someone crops up I am keen to find out where they fit.

I seem to have the habit of finding things while looking for something else. Findmypast have added some non-conformist records for Derbyshire and I thought I would see if it adds anything to my exploration of Andrew’s Kindred. So far it has not, but it did lead me to look at the newspaper archive, where I found an article about an Eliza Dennies who had stolen a collar. I think this was probably a muslin-backed lace collar.

ram-inn-instock-geograph-the-bitterman
Ram Inn, Ibstock. Via Geograph, copyright: the bitterman.

What the papers say

The Leicester Mercury 27 Jul 1844 reported that Eliza Dennis, Bagworth, was committed for trial, charged with stealing a muslin-laced collar, property of Harriette Tunstall.

The Belper News 10 Aug 1844 reported that Eliza had pleaded guilty and was sentenced to one month’s hard labour.

On the same date the Leicester Mercury, reported on the Leicestershire Midsummer Assizes of Mon 5 Aug, before Lord Chief Justice Denman. It said that Eliza Dennis, 14, was charged with stealing a muslin-lined collar on 13th July at Ibstock. She was sentenced to one calendar month’s hard labour, two weeks of which solitary.

Background

I have so far been unable to find out anything about John Tunley or Harriet Tunstall, but I did already have Eliza in my tree. She was baptised at Measham on 8 Aug 1830, daughter of Thomas and Ann (whose maiden name I have yet to discover; some say Hinks, but that must be different family). Our common ancestor was Eliza’s grandfather Henry Dennis, born 1718, Measham.

Imagine: a 14 year old young woman – she would not have been seen as a girl at that time – in solitary confinement! What impact would this have on her young life? There are several papers online that deal with the physical and psychological impacts of solitary confinement, though I think these are to do with considerably longer spells than two weeks. Nonetheless, it would be a stiff ordeal for a teenager and would probably just further entrench any resentment for authority that she already had.

What happened to Eliza after that is a complete mystery: she seems to have disappeared without trace! In 1844 an Eliza Dennies was buried, but she was born in 1843. In 1848 an Eliza Dennis married someone, presumably one of the four men on the same page: Joseph Blount, James Davys, Joseph Knight, John Proudman; but the 1851 census and index of deaths both draw blanks. One tree owner has Whetton and, indeed, an Eliza Whetton of the right age appears in the 1851 census, but that Mr Whetton’s bride was Eliza Plummer. I have not found a record of emigration, voluntary or otherwise.

A mystery it remains …

J is for …

From: Reaney, P H, (ed. Wilson, R M), 1997, Oxford Dictionary of English Surnames, 3rd ed., OUP, Oxford, unless otherwise stated.

Jackson

Earliest in Andrew’s Kindred: William Jackson, born about 1797, Pipe Hill, near Lichfield, Staffordshire.

Son of Jack.

lichfield-from-pipe-hill-800x225
View of Lichfield from near Pipe Hill.  William would recognise the spires of St Michael (right) and the Cathedral, the Ladies of the Vale.

The cathedral is dedicated to St Mary and St Chad, who became Bishop of Mercia in 669,  when he moved the See from Repton to Lichfield.  The cathedral and city are well worth a visit.

Jobburn / Jobbern(s)

Earliest in Andrew’s Kindred: John Jobburn, born about 1816, Norton Canes, Staffordshire.

In the 1861 census this is mistranscribed as Iobberns.

A bit mysterious. Job is a Hebrew personal name (the man of Biblical patience). I think it may have originated in the medieval crusades. I don’t understand Reaney.

Jones

Earliest in Andrew’s Kindred: William and Elizabeth Jones, parents of Aaron Jones, baptised 27 Jan 1694, Measham, Derbyshire.

Reaney begins with Johannes, the route of John, and the Welsh Johns (son of John). Jones, however, is indelibly associated with Wales. Reaney says that the Welsh equivalent of John is Evan and for the Welsh Authorised Bible Ioan was chosen.  This led to the prevalence of Jones.

So, although I have traced my kindred back to Measham, there is sure to be a Welsh connection lost in the mists of time.

Judd

Earliest in Andrew’s Kindred: John Judd, born about 1803, Irthlingborough, Northamptonshire.

A diminutive of Jordan, via, Jurd.

A new arrival

Just over two hundred years ago on a winter’s Wednesday, a baby boy emerged into a warm and cosy cottage in the small mining village of Moira, in north west Leicestershire. The blustery wind had calmed, but it was still a chill twilight that necessitated a candle or spill to work by, but the village was mostly lit only by intermittent moon and starlight. Light was expensive, to some degree a luxury, and used sparingly.

It was the 14th of December 1814. Moira was really a hive of activity as women (mainly) prepared meals for their men and boys who would soon be home and hungry, but the windows were mostly dark and blind. A few children played in the street that ran in front of the row of cottages whose menfolk were mainly underground, cutting black diamonds from the depths. As the clouds broke the waning, near-full moon silvered the thin trails of smoke rising from chimneys and the back room fires smouldered, barely alive.

William “Bill” Dennies had ended his second shift early and, as he emerged from the mine, drew in the fresh, chill air. Unlike the last, this winter had so far been mild, but, as the sky was clearing, there was sure to be a frost come the morning. There was just one thing on Bill’s mind, his wife Lizzie was expecting a child at any moment.

At the colliery gate, the usual greetings were exchanged: “Goodnight, Ted”. Warming his hands at the brazier, “Old Ted” replied: “Goodnight, Bill”. Often Bill stopped for a brief chat, but now was not the time.

Outside the gate three little girls played with a skipping rope. This was a treasured toy assembled by Bill’s younger brother Joe. Somehow he had found some bright red paint for the handles and this set it apart from the simple knotted ends that other children had. The girls were Bill’s daughter, six-year-old Mary, her seven-year-old cousin Eleanor and their friend, six-year-old Mary Finch.

Today, Mary Dennies had some special news and as soon as Bill was in sight, she ran breathlessly to bring the glad tidings. “Daddy! We’ve got a baby boy!”

“How’s your Mam?”, came the bluff reply. Henry was not one for small talk or nonsense at the best of times, but what concerned him most was the worry that it could all go so terribly wrong. True enough, Lizzie was a strong, healthy woman and just thirty one, but all too often childbirth was fatal to mother or baby, or both, and the consequences could devastate the whole family.

“Aunt Sarah says Mam and the baby are doing very well.”

“Come on, then”, said Bill, and lifted his daughter onto his shoulders. Despite being weary from a hard shift below ground Bill kept up a brisk pace for the few hundred yards between colliery gate and home, the little legs of Mary’s playmates struggling to keep up.

Bill Dennies was a typical miner. Shortish, by today’s standards, about five feet four inches tall, broad shouldered, bow-legged, and with a slight stoop from bending to cut coal where he was unable to stand. Like most of his family he had brilliant blue eyes and hair so bright it might have been drawn from pure copper. This was the Viking in his blood, or at least that is what his grandfather had told him when he was a boy of about eight. Bill always thought there was an uneasy tension between his family’s Wesleyan views and the reputation for rape and pillage that everyone associated with the Northmen. Still, he used to say, they had been saved by adopting Christian teaching.

Ahead, a break in the clouds revealed the moon following across the sky a bright orangey star, which Reverend Malpas had said was Mars. Although the vicar belonged to a different denomination, Church as opposed to Chapel, Bill had always got on well with him and admired his learning. Orion, the hunter, would soon follow, with his shiny belt and gleaming sword.

As Bill approached his house a small group of men walked in the opposite direction. One called out: “Will we see you wetting the baby’s head in the Rawdon?” They laughed.

Bill would not be drawn – his Wesleyan beliefs prohibited the consumption of alcohol. His pace was relentless. The Rawdon Arms was one place he had never entered and had no intention of entering. He hurried past the blind windows, causing Mary to jog up and down, like riding a horse she thought, it always made her giggle. Mrs Finch called out her congratulations. Soon they were home.

Putting Mary down he pushed through the front door and crossed the front room and into the back kitchen.

“Is that you dear?”, Lizzie called.

The fire gave out a reddish glow, with here and there a bright blue-yellow flame, which made the room too warm for Bill’s work clothes. There was a pot of stew simmering on the back burner. Across the courtyard he could see through windows the shadowy figure of Mrs Hart next door, fussing over supper. The stub of a candle still burned, giving more light than was usual – it was placed to maximise light reflected by the mirror above the fireplace, so Henry could see the glow in his wife’s face. Lizzie sat in her rocking chair, cradling the baby.

“You look very well, Mam”, bending to kiss her forehead and then his new, sleeping son’s forehead. “I hope the light is not deceiving me.”

“No, I am very well, Pop. This one was much easier than the others. Your Sarah was an angel.”

“Well you rest a while Mam.”

Bill went out into the back yard to find his sister Sarah working hard at the wash tub, plunging and turning the dolly to clean the towels she had used to help deliver the baby. Steam rose from the tub and Sarah glistened from the vigorous work, strands of coppery hair trailing across her face. She worked in near darkness, by the feint glow from the kitchen window and the lengthening bursts of moonlight.

“Congratulations, brother. You have a fine boy there. Nothing wrong with his lungs, that’s for sure.”

“Thank you, sis. It really is a relief. And thanks for helping out.”

“What will you call him?”

Bill knew from past experience that the expected answer was that he would leave that decision to Lizzie, but decided to spar. “I hadn’t really thought about it much. I mean, you never know …”.

“Perhaps so, but I think uncle Harry felt a bit left out after Joe. And he does look after us pretty well.” Uncle Harry was Henry Dennies, a butcher who plied his trade in High Street, Measham, a walk of about an hour. From time to time he would visit and leave behind a cut of beef or a brace of coneys (as they called rabbit in those days) and every Tuesday Sarah and Lizzie, Mrs Finch and some other ladies, would walk over to the market in Measham to purchase groceries and other provisions.

“Naming a newborn is a tricky business”, said Bill. “You don’t want to offend Nan and Granddad or uncle Harry or aunt Sarah, but do we really want so many Bills and Jacks and Marys and Lizzies? There must be going on for five hundred folk in this village, about half of them men, and there must be a hundred named either William or John. And Tom can’t be far behind. The same goes for women. I reckon two thirds or more women are called Mary, Elizabeth or Sarah. And it’s not just here. If you go to Measham market and call out John or Mary half the town turns to see who is asking after them.” Sarah kept on plunging the dolly into the steaming water and twisting it to force out the dirt. She beat out a rhythm as the three-legged dolly drummed against the wooden tub.

Bill continued. “When our Joe came along I suggested we should go for something different, you know, from the Bible. Other people, I admit not many, name their kids Daniel or Job, Hannah or Esther. In the end, though, Lizzie insisted we name him after her favourite uncle.”

“Well, we women raise them, so we ought to be able to choose their names. You just stick to cutting coal and growing veg.”

“Henry it is then. Subject to Mam’s say so.”

So it was that, on Sunday, the 8th of January 1815, William and Elizabeth Dennies had their child baptised at the parish church of St Laurence in Measham. St Laurence was a typical parish church. made of dressed grey stone. At the west end a square tower was topped by finials in each corner. At its base they passed into the nave, flanked by two aisles.

Gathered round the font, in their Sunday best, were William, Elizabeth holding the baby, uncle Harry and aunt Sarah. The other children remained in their pew. The christening party was completed by the Reverend John Henry Malpas. Rev Malpas was new, only incumbent for a year or so. Henry’s four older siblings were baptised by his predecessor Tom Jones. It was a normal Sunday service, though the Dennies family, being Wesleyan, would have chosen different hymns. As they and the rest of the congregation left the church, bells rang out the glad tidings. The bells were very old. The tenor bell, it was said, was hung more than five hundred years before. Some more bells were two hundred years old.

Footnote:

These bells can all be heard even today, a further two centuries on.

It would be a few years yet before baptisms were allowed at the Wesleyan chapel.

So his name was Henry, starting out on a life of eighty years. Only one more Henry was baptised at Measham that year, but baby Henry Peace was resting in peace not three months later. It was a fact of life that many children died in infancy or childhood from diseases and ailments that are easily treated or unheard of today, but, without vaccines and antibiotics, children, and people generally, were vulnerable to diseases that rarely kill today, such as scarlet fever, measles and tuberculosis.

In 1841 (little changed in the first half of the nineteenth century), Henry was not the most commonplace name in Moira; there were only about twelve in the village. Nonetheless, what Bill had said was about right, with four males named John, Thomas or William to every one Henry.

Clearly, the narrative is imagined. The phase of the moon is based on the algorithm that powers Starry Night Beginner, a small bit of software that shows where heavenly bodies will be at any given time.

F is for …

From: Reaney, P H, (ed. Wilson, R M), 1997, Oxford Dictionary of English Surnames, 3rd ed., OUP, Oxford, unless otherwise stated.

Fairfield

Earliest in Andrew’s Kindred: George Fairfield born 1854 Norton Canes, Staffordshire.

Dweller by the fair field.

Fewkes

Earliest in Andrew’s Kindred: Benjamin Fewkes born 1786 Swannington, Leicestershire.

There seems to be nothing conclusive. Old German for folk? Old French for falcon – more likely after conquest? Perhaps evolved into Fox? Maybe something to do with Fuchs, such as the German botanist?

Finch

Earliest in Andrew’s Kindred: Henry Finch born 1743 Measham, Derbyshire.

From the Anglo-Saxon Old English finc the modern finch, a nickname for a simpleton, or perhaps bird-brain. The English finch has the German equivalent fink. Today fink is used, mainly in America, to refer to an unpleasant or contemptible person.

chaffinch-110216-1-640x436
Chaffinch

It is suggested that one origin may be from a catcher or seller of birds for cages or the table (Dictionary of American Family Names 2013, Oxford University Press); for example like Tamino, in The Magic Flute.

Fletcher

Earliest in Andrew’s Kindred: James Fletcher born 1807 Horsley Woodhouse, Derbyshire.

Old French flechier or flecher, maker or seller of arrows.

fletcher

Fryer

Earliest in Andrew’s Kindred: John Fryer born 1830 Bishampton, Worcestershire.

From Old French frere, brother = friar (as in Friar Tuck, of Robin Hood fame).

Fullelove

Earliest in Andrew’s Kindred: William Fullelove born 1848 Whitwick, Leicestershire.

Full of love. Subsidy Rolls Cambridgeshire ffulofloue 1327, Subsidy Rolls Cumberland ffuloflof 1332. To be fair this looks obvious!  Seems very much a Yorkshire name.

Aer Reg, if you are passing by, this seems to fit.