Thanks to the General Register Office (GRO) continuing its trial for supplying PDF versions of entries of birth, marriage and death, I was able to solve a mystery, but not the one I expected. Continue reading “Mary, Mary, quite contrary”
Prime Minister from Liverpool to May
I have featured this coin before. These pictures were the first I took with a new lens that acts as a short range telephoto (90 mm) and macro, or close-up. But what was going on when it was minted two centuries ago?
As mentioned in my blog about the year without a summer, 1816, the country was suffering. Wages were in decline, harvests failing, the price of grain rising and with it the cost of daily bread. There remained a surplus of labour following the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815. Continue reading “X marks the spot”
Any genealogist or family historian who has researched more than two or three generations will almost certainly have found someone whose father does not appear on the entry of birth or baptism record. In many cases there is not real clue as to the identity of the father and dubious speculation is all that will ever be available.
However, sometimes there is a clue. In the case of my grandmother, “Nan”, this was in the form of unsupported family lore. Much later, though, Nan’s mother and alleged father married, which adds some force to the argument – see Mystery number one: Nan (part 3).
The identity of the unnamed father is sometimes hinted at on official entries of death, and there are two examples in my tree that I have found.
We were reminded of the potential risks of sport this weekend when Hull City player Ryan Mason suffered a serious head injury during the match against Chelsea. The clash of heads with an opponent was purely accidental, but could easily have been life-threatening. Medical attention was provided seconds after the incident, giving the injured player the best possible chance of recovery.
Spare a thought, then, for young Thomas Hogg, who, according to a marginal note by the Coroner, “came to his death owing to a fall in playing at football”.
I am not sure how Thomas fits into my tree, but he is bound to have been related in some way to my second great grandmother Dorothy Hogg. I have not yet been able to find out exactly how Thomas came to be injured – no slo-mo replays back then, but the presence of anyone able to provide effective medical assistance would have been a matter of chance. Even if a doctor had been present, his knowledge of head trauma would have been vanishingly small in comparison to the people present at Stamford Bridge, the Chelsea ground, where the medical team were able to administer oxygen, and to deploy equipment to immobilise the casualty. He was then rushed to hospital, where he underwent an emergency operation to address bleeding of the brain. Thomas would have had none of that.
The last I heard was that Ryan Mason was sitting up and talking; here’s hoping that he makes a full recovery.
Over the years I have managed to connect very nearly all people named Dennis or Dennies, born, baptised or resident in Oakthorpe, Donisthorpe, Measham, Moira and Bagworth, with some from Church Gresley and other nearby places, in south east Derbyshire and north west Leicestershire, so when someone crops up I am keen to find out where they fit.
I seem to have the habit of finding things while looking for something else. Findmypast have added some non-conformist records for Derbyshire and I thought I would see if it adds anything to my exploration of Andrew’s Kindred. So far it has not, but it did lead me to look at the newspaper archive, where I found an article about an Eliza Dennies who had stolen a collar. I think this was probably a muslin-backed lace collar.
What the papers say
The Leicester Mercury 27 Jul 1844 reported that Eliza Dennis, Bagworth, was committed for trial, charged with stealing a muslin-laced collar, property of Harriette Tunstall.
The Belper News 10 Aug 1844 reported that Eliza had pleaded guilty and was sentenced to one month’s hard labour.
On the same date the Leicester Mercury, reported on the Leicestershire Midsummer Assizes of Mon 5 Aug, before Lord Chief Justice Denman. It said that Eliza Dennis, 14, was charged with stealing a muslin-lined collar on 13th July at Ibstock. She was sentenced to one calendar month’s hard labour, two weeks of which solitary.
I have so far been unable to find out anything about John Tunley or Harriet Tunstall, but I did already have Eliza in my tree. She was baptised at Measham on 8 Aug 1830, daughter of Thomas and Ann (whose maiden name I have yet to discover; some say Hinks, but that must be different family). Our common ancestor was Eliza’s grandfather Henry Dennis, born 1718, Measham.
Imagine: a 14 year old young woman – she would not have been seen as a girl at that time – in solitary confinement! What impact would this have on her young life? There are several papers online that deal with the physical and psychological impacts of solitary confinement, though I think these are to do with considerably longer spells than two weeks. Nonetheless, it would be a stiff ordeal for a teenager and would probably just further entrench any resentment for authority that she already had.
What happened to Eliza after that is a complete mystery: she seems to have disappeared without trace! In 1844 an Eliza Dennies was buried, but she was born in 1843. In 1848 an Eliza Dennis married someone, presumably one of the four men on the same page: Joseph Blount, James Davys, Joseph Knight, John Proudman; but the 1851 census and index of deaths both draw blanks. One tree owner has Whetton and, indeed, an Eliza Whetton of the right age appears in the 1851 census, but that Mr Whetton’s bride was Eliza Plummer. I have not found a record of emigration, voluntary or otherwise.
A mystery it remains …
Following a number of disasters involving children, whether caused by them or not, the Collieries and Mines Act was passed in 1842. Among other things, this prohibited the employment of females and boys under the age of 10 from working underground. I wanted to understand how this might have affected Andrew’s Kindred. The earliest comprehensive data on occupations is the 1841 census. I wanted to explore the interplay between work and school, but no information is recorded as to which children were scholars and I was confined to comparing work and no work. It should be noted that my samples are small and it cannot be claimed that my analysis has any national or regional significance. Nonetheless, it does say something about the communities in which my coal mining forebears lived and worked.
I first looked at Bagworth, in north west Leicestershire. There were no females with colliery occupations, but 2 boys aged 9 were described as “collier”, with 6 more aged 11-14. There is no distinction in the 1841 census between above and below ground, so it is possible that some of the boys worked on the pit bank.
Next, I looked at Moira. The table below shows the numbers of boys employed at the various collieries and with no occupation. Three boys aged 8 and 9 were employed at a colliery.
Again, there were no females working at a colliery, but there was an alternative in lace work, so I counted up those in lace work and those not in work. No girls under 10 were employed, but there were 23 girls aged 5 to 9 in the village. 10 girls aged 10-14 were employed, 15 of the same age group were not employed. Clearly, the numbers in work will depend upon demand for labour, so, even if all children were available for work, there may not have been enough openings for all.
In Oakthorpe there were no females and no boys under 10 at a colliery.
Moving to another coalfield in Shropshire, I also looked at Lawley Bank, home to my Brown coal mining kindred. Boys under the age of 10 were employed: 2 (7 and 8 years) colliery; and 2 boys aged 8 were a stone miner and a brick maker. Among boys aged 10 were 9 at a colliery and 9 not in work.
A quick survey of the Brownhills part of Norton Canes, Staffordshire, found no boys aged 14 or younger employed at a colliery. In all there were 23 boys in that age range.
In general, then, it seems that 10 was considered the right time by some families or collieries to put their boys to work, and that few sent younger boys to work. It might be that parents were aware of the risks to both boys and men from reading or hearing about mining disasters and had mostly adopted a policy of not sending boys under 10 to the colliery, or it might have been that colliery owners adopted such a policy.
Child labour in Brownhills 1861
For comparison I revisited extensive analysis of my home town of Brownhills, currently in West Midlands, but at the time of the 1861 census was in Staffordshire. I wonder if the low numbers of girls in work reflects limited opportunity in the area rather than more wealthy areas where servants lived in.
There were no females engaged in colliery work. There were 3 boys engaged in colliery work, all aged 9, but there was also an 8-year-old “door minder”; I wonder if this was another term for “trapper”, a boy below ground operating a sort of door, which aided ventilation and helped avoid build up of flammable gas. The other 3 were respectively, “coal miner” (2) and “coal miner’s boy”. If, as the census definitions suggest, these boys were working below ground the colliery was in clear breach of the law, even if the management had been deceived about their true age.
A key step towards improving conditions for children was the Children’s Employment Commission 1842. It found that in Staffordshire two of the worst practices were absent, that is there were no women or girls were employed below ground and there were few child trappers because most of the mines were too small to require that type of ventilation. (1)
At the time of the Commission, many girls were employed at the canalside or as “bankswomen”, but by 1861 this had died out in the Brownhills population. Following the Commission, the Children’s Employment Act of 1842 prohibited boys under 10 and all females from working below ground, and in 1860 the age limit for boys was raised to 12. Nonetheless, it appears from the 1861 census that 15 boys from Brownhills aged just 10 or 11 years were employed below ground. In the table below, the “Coal miner’s labourer”, could also have been below ground.
(1) Cannock Chase Mining History Society, 2005, The Cannock Chase Coalfield and its coal mines, p36.
I will explore this topic more, but, for now, that’s all folks.
Just over two hundred years ago on a winter’s Wednesday, a baby boy emerged into a warm and cosy cottage in the small mining village of Moira, in north west Leicestershire. The blustery wind had calmed, but it was still a chill twilight that necessitated a candle or spill to work by, but the village was mostly lit only by intermittent moon and starlight. Light was expensive, to some degree a luxury, and used sparingly.
It was the 14th of December 1814. Moira was really a hive of activity as women (mainly) prepared meals for their men and boys who would soon be home and hungry, but the windows were mostly dark and blind. A few children played in the street that ran in front of the row of cottages whose menfolk were mainly underground, cutting black diamonds from the depths. As the clouds broke the waning, near-full moon silvered the thin trails of smoke rising from chimneys and the back room fires smouldered, barely alive.
William “Bill” Dennies had ended his second shift early and, as he emerged from the mine, drew in the fresh, chill air. Unlike the last, this winter had so far been mild, but, as the sky was clearing, there was sure to be a frost come the morning. There was just one thing on Bill’s mind, his wife Lizzie was expecting a child at any moment.
At the colliery gate, the usual greetings were exchanged: “Goodnight, Ted”. Warming his hands at the brazier, “Old Ted” replied: “Goodnight, Bill”. Often Bill stopped for a brief chat, but now was not the time.
Outside the gate three little girls played with a skipping rope. This was a treasured toy assembled by Bill’s younger brother Joe. Somehow he had found some bright red paint for the handles and this set it apart from the simple knotted ends that other children had. The girls were Bill’s daughter, six-year-old Mary, her seven-year-old cousin Eleanor and their friend, six-year-old Mary Finch.
Today, Mary Dennies had some special news and as soon as Bill was in sight, she ran breathlessly to bring the glad tidings. “Daddy! We’ve got a baby boy!”
“How’s your Mam?”, came the bluff reply. Henry was not one for small talk or nonsense at the best of times, but what concerned him most was the worry that it could all go so terribly wrong. True enough, Lizzie was a strong, healthy woman and just thirty one, but all too often childbirth was fatal to mother or baby, or both, and the consequences could devastate the whole family.
“Aunt Sarah says Mam and the baby are doing very well.”
“Come on, then”, said Bill, and lifted his daughter onto his shoulders. Despite being weary from a hard shift below ground Bill kept up a brisk pace for the few hundred yards between colliery gate and home, the little legs of Mary’s playmates struggling to keep up.
Bill Dennies was a typical miner. Shortish, by today’s standards, about five feet four inches tall, broad shouldered, bow-legged, and with a slight stoop from bending to cut coal where he was unable to stand. Like most of his family he had brilliant blue eyes and hair so bright it might have been drawn from pure copper. This was the Viking in his blood, or at least that is what his grandfather had told him when he was a boy of about eight. Bill always thought there was an uneasy tension between his family’s Wesleyan views and the reputation for rape and pillage that everyone associated with the Northmen. Still, he used to say, they had been saved by adopting Christian teaching.
Ahead, a break in the clouds revealed the moon following across the sky a bright orangey star, which Reverend Malpas had said was Mars. Although the vicar belonged to a different denomination, Church as opposed to Chapel, Bill had always got on well with him and admired his learning. Orion, the hunter, would soon follow, with his shiny belt and gleaming sword.
As Bill approached his house a small group of men walked in the opposite direction. One called out: “Will we see you wetting the baby’s head in the Rawdon?” They laughed.
Bill would not be drawn – his Wesleyan beliefs prohibited the consumption of alcohol. His pace was relentless. The Rawdon Arms was one place he had never entered and had no intention of entering. He hurried past the blind windows, causing Mary to jog up and down, like riding a horse she thought, it always made her giggle. Mrs Finch called out her congratulations. Soon they were home.
Putting Mary down he pushed through the front door and crossed the front room and into the back kitchen.
“Is that you dear?”, Lizzie called.
The fire gave out a reddish glow, with here and there a bright blue-yellow flame, which made the room too warm for Bill’s work clothes. There was a pot of stew simmering on the back burner. Across the courtyard he could see through windows the shadowy figure of Mrs Hart next door, fussing over supper. The stub of a candle still burned, giving more light than was usual – it was placed to maximise light reflected by the mirror above the fireplace, so Henry could see the glow in his wife’s face. Lizzie sat in her rocking chair, cradling the baby.
“You look very well, Mam”, bending to kiss her forehead and then his new, sleeping son’s forehead. “I hope the light is not deceiving me.”
“No, I am very well, Pop. This one was much easier than the others. Your Sarah was an angel.”
“Well you rest a while Mam.”
Bill went out into the back yard to find his sister Sarah working hard at the wash tub, plunging and turning the dolly to clean the towels she had used to help deliver the baby. Steam rose from the tub and Sarah glistened from the vigorous work, strands of coppery hair trailing across her face. She worked in near darkness, by the feint glow from the kitchen window and the lengthening bursts of moonlight.
“Congratulations, brother. You have a fine boy there. Nothing wrong with his lungs, that’s for sure.”
“Thank you, sis. It really is a relief. And thanks for helping out.”
“What will you call him?”
Bill knew from past experience that the expected answer was that he would leave that decision to Lizzie, but decided to spar. “I hadn’t really thought about it much. I mean, you never know …”.
“Perhaps so, but I think uncle Harry felt a bit left out after Joe. And he does look after us pretty well.” Uncle Harry was Henry Dennies, a butcher who plied his trade in High Street, Measham, a walk of about an hour. From time to time he would visit and leave behind a cut of beef or a brace of coneys (as they called rabbit in those days) and every Tuesday Sarah and Lizzie, Mrs Finch and some other ladies, would walk over to the market in Measham to purchase groceries and other provisions.
“Naming a newborn is a tricky business”, said Bill. “You don’t want to offend Nan and Granddad or uncle Harry or aunt Sarah, but do we really want so many Bills and Jacks and Marys and Lizzies? There must be going on for five hundred folk in this village, about half of them men, and there must be a hundred named either William or John. And Tom can’t be far behind. The same goes for women. I reckon two thirds or more women are called Mary, Elizabeth or Sarah. And it’s not just here. If you go to Measham market and call out John or Mary half the town turns to see who is asking after them.” Sarah kept on plunging the dolly into the steaming water and twisting it to force out the dirt. She beat out a rhythm as the three-legged dolly drummed against the wooden tub.
Bill continued. “When our Joe came along I suggested we should go for something different, you know, from the Bible. Other people, I admit not many, name their kids Daniel or Job, Hannah or Esther. In the end, though, Lizzie insisted we name him after her favourite uncle.”
“Well, we women raise them, so we ought to be able to choose their names. You just stick to cutting coal and growing veg.”
“Henry it is then. Subject to Mam’s say so.”
So it was that, on Sunday, the 8th of January 1815, William and Elizabeth Dennies had their child baptised at the parish church of St Laurence in Measham. St Laurence was a typical parish church. made of dressed grey stone. At the west end a square tower was topped by finials in each corner. At its base they passed into the nave, flanked by two aisles.
Gathered round the font, in their Sunday best, were William, Elizabeth holding the baby, uncle Harry and aunt Sarah. The other children remained in their pew. The christening party was completed by the Reverend John Henry Malpas. Rev Malpas was new, only incumbent for a year or so. Henry’s four older siblings were baptised by his predecessor Tom Jones. It was a normal Sunday service, though the Dennies family, being Wesleyan, would have chosen different hymns. As they and the rest of the congregation left the church, bells rang out the glad tidings. The bells were very old. The tenor bell, it was said, was hung more than five hundred years before. Some more bells were two hundred years old.
These bells can all be heard even today, a further two centuries on.
It would be a few years yet before baptisms were allowed at the Wesleyan chapel.
So his name was Henry, starting out on a life of eighty years. Only one more Henry was baptised at Measham that year, but baby Henry Peace was resting in peace not three months later. It was a fact of life that many children died in infancy or childhood from diseases and ailments that are easily treated or unheard of today, but, without vaccines and antibiotics, children, and people generally, were vulnerable to diseases that rarely kill today, such as scarlet fever, measles and tuberculosis.
In 1841 (little changed in the first half of the nineteenth century), Henry was not the most commonplace name in Moira; there were only about twelve in the village. Nonetheless, what Bill had said was about right, with four males named John, Thomas or William to every one Henry.
Clearly, the narrative is imagined. The phase of the moon is based on the algorithm that powers Starry Night Beginner, a small bit of software that shows where heavenly bodies will be at any given time.